Adolescence is a time of many transitions both for teens and their families. To ensure that teens and adults navigate these transitions successfully, it is important for both to understand what is happening to the teen physically, cognitively, and socially; how these transitions affect teens; what adults can do; and what support resources are available. As you read the following information, keep in mind that while all teens develop, they don't all follow the same timeline.

Physical Development: What Is It?

During the teen years, adolescents experience changes in their physical development at a rate of speed unparalleled since infancy.

Physical development includes:
  • Rapid gains in height and weight. During a one-year growth spurt, boys and girls can gain an average of 4.1 inches and 3.5 inches in height respectively. This spurt typically occurs two years earlier for girls than for boys. Weight gain results from increased muscle development in boys and body fat in girls.
  • Development of secondary sex characteristics. During puberty, changing hormonal levels play a role in activating the development of secondary sex characteristics. These include: (1) growth of pubic hair; (2) menarche (first menstrual period for girls) or penis growth (for boys); (3) voice changes (for boys); (4) growth of underarm hair; (5) facial hair growth (for boys); and (6) increased production of oil, increased sweat gland activity, and the beginning of acne.
  • Continued brain development. Recent research suggests that teens' brains are not completely developed until late in adolescence. Specifically, studies suggest that the connections between neurons affecting emotional, physical and mental abilities are incomplete. This could explain why some teens seem to be inconsistent in controlling their emotions, impulses, and judgments.

How Do These Changes Affect Teens?
  • Teens frequently sleep longer. Research suggests that teens actually need more sleep to allow their bodies to conduct the internal work required for such rapid growth. On average, teens need about 9 1/2 hours of sleep a night.
  • Teens may be more clumsy because of growth spurts. If it seems to you that teens' bodies are all arms and legs then your perception is correct. During this phase of development, body parts don't all grow at the same rate. This can lead to clumsiness as the teen tries to cope with limbs that seem to have grown overnight. Teens can appear gangly and uncoordinated.
  • Teenage girls may become overly sensitive about their weight. This concern arises because of the rapid weight gain associated with puberty. Sixty percent of adolescent girls report that they are trying to lose weight. A small percentage of adolescent girls (1-3%) become so obsessed with their weight that they develop severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Anorexia nervosa refers to starvation; bulimia refers to binge eating and vomiting.
  • Teens may be concerned because they are not physically developing at the same rate as their peers. Teens may be more developed than their peers ("early-maturers") or less developed than their peers ("late-maturers"). Being out of developmental "step" with peers is a concern to adolescents because most just want to fit in. Early maturation affects boys and girls differently. Research suggests that early maturing boys tend to be more popular with peers and hold more leadership positions. Adults often assume that early maturing boys are cognitively mature as well. This assumption can lead to false expectations about a young person's ability to take on increased responsibility. Because of their physical appearance, early maturing girls are more likely to experience pressure to become involved in dating relationships with older boys before they are emotionally ready. Early maturing girls tend to suffer more from depression, eating disorders, and anxiety.
  • Teens may feel awkward about demonstrating affection to the opposite sex parent. As they develop physically, teens are beginning to rethink their interactions with the opposite sex. An adolescent girl who used to hug and kiss her dad when he returned home from work may now shy away. A boy who used to kiss his mother good night may now wave to her on his way up the stairs.
  • Teens may ask more direct questions about sex. At this stage, adolescents are trying to figure out their sexual values. Teens often equate intimacy with sex. Rather than exploring a deep emotional attachment first, teens tend to assume that if they engage in the physical act, the emotional attachment will follow. They may ask questions about how to abstain without becoming embarrassed or about how they will know when the time is right. They may also have specific questions about methods of birth control and protection from sexually transmitted diseases.

What Can You Do?
  • Knowledge about what changes and behaviors during adolescence are normal can go a long way in helping both teens and adults manage the transition successfully. There are also some specific things adults can do to be supportive:
  • Don't criticize or compare the teens to others. Teens are already acutely self-conscious about the way they look. They don't need you to point it out to them.
  • Encourage teens to get enough sleep. Realize they may need an extra boost in getting out of bed for school. Try to be understanding when teens want to sleep until noon on Saturday.
  • Encourage and model healthy eating habits. Keep plenty of nutritious foods in the house. Remember that teens need to take in more calories to fuel their growth. Monitor eating habits accordingly.
  • Encourage and model physical activity. Exercise will help teens burn excess energy, strengthen developing muscles, and sleep better at night. It may also help teens become more comfortable in their changing bodies.
  • Talk to parents about how to answer questions about sex.  If you choose to have a discussion, make sure your answers are honest. Teens are in search of knowledge on this subject. If adults do not provide accurate information, teens are forced to rely on their peers or other potentially inaccurate sources. Unfortunately, such erroneous information is often to blame when teens make poor decisions.
  • Be understanding of their need for physical space. Do not take it personally if a teen is not as physically affectionate as he or she was in the past. Do not force a teen to hug or kiss relatives or family friends. Maintain communication, but respect teens' need to withdraw.
  • Be patient with excessive grooming habits. Teens often spend large amounts of time grooming themselves and obsessing over skin care products. Often, this behavior merely reflects teens' attempts to maintain some sense of control over their rapidly changing bodies.

Cognitive Development: What Is It?
Most adults recognize that teens have better thinking skills than younger youth. These advances in thinking can be divided into several areas:

  • Developing advanced reasoning skills. Advanced reasoning skills include the ability to think about multiple options and possibilities. It includes a more logical thought process and the ability to think about things hypothetically. It involves asking and answering the question, "what if...?"
  • Developing abstract thinking skills. Abstract thinking means thinking about things that cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Examples include things like faith, trust, beliefs and spirituality.
  • Developing the ability to think about thinking in a process known as "meta-cognition." Meta-cognition allows individuals to think about how they feel and what they are thinking. It involves being able to think about how one is perceived by others. It can also be used to develop strategies, also known as mnemonic devices, for improving learning. Remembering the notes on the lines of a music staff (e, g, b, d, and f) through the phrase "every good boy does fine" is an example of such a mnemonic device.

How Do These Changes Affect Teens?
  • Teens demonstrate a heightened level of self-consciousness. Teens tend to believe that everyone is as concerned with their thoughts and behaviors as they are. This leads teens to believe that they have an "imaginary audience" of people who are always watching them.
  • Teens tend to believe that no one else has ever experienced similar feelings and emotions. They may become overly dramatic in describing things that are upsetting to them. They may say things like "You'll never understand," or "My life is ruined!"
  • Teens tend to exhibit the "it can't happen to me" syndrome also known as a "personal fable." This belief causes teens to take unnecessary risks like drinking and driving ("I won't crash this car"), having unprotected sex ("I can't possibly get pregnant"), or smoking ("I can't possibly get cancer").
  • Teens tend to become very cause-oriented. Their activism is related to the ability to think about abstract concepts. After reading about cruelty to animals a teen may become a vegetarian and a member of "People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals" (P.E.T.A.). Another teen may become active in "Green Peace" or "Save the Whales" campaigns.
  • Teens tend to exhibit a "justice" orientation. They are quick to point out inconsistencies between adults' words and their actions. They have difficulty seeing shades of gray. They see little room for error.

What Can You Do?
  • Don't take it personally when teens discount your experience. Try to empathize with and listen to their concerns.
  • Get teens involved in discussing their behavioral rules and consequences. Teens should take a more active role in determining how they should behave. Their advanced reasoning skills make it easier for them to generate realistic consequences for their actions. Listen to their ideas!
  • Provide opportunities for teens to participate in controlled risky behavior. Get teens involved in properly supervised extreme sports, such as parachuting, or rock climbing. Such activities will allow teens opportunities to play out their "it can't happen to me" mentality in an environment that won't be deadly if they fail.
  • Provide opportunities for teens to get involved in community service. Teens want to become active in things that have deeper meaning. Suggest they volunteer at a homeless shelter, walk dogs for the animal shelter, or take meals to the elderly. Talk with them about their experiences.
  • Talk to teens about their views and be open to discussing your own. Find out what they think about news stories on television or in the paper; ask them about their political and spiritual beliefs. Teens are already thinking about these things so give them a non-threatening forum for discussing them.
  • Try to build a genuine relationship with your teen. Let them know what you were like as a teen. Talk to them about your mistakes and vulnerabilities. Try to understand their feelings and express yours so you can be understood.

Psycho-Social Development: What Is It?
There are five recognized psychosocial issues that teens deal with during their adolescent years. These include:
  • Establishing an identity. This has been called one of the most important tasks of adolescents. The question of "who am I" is not one that teens think about at a conscious level. Instead, over the course of the adolescent years, teens begin to integrate the opinions of influential others (e.g. parents, other caring adults, friends, etc.) into their own likes and dislikes. The eventual outcome is people who have a clear sense of their values and beliefs, occupational goals, and relationship expectations. People with secure identities know where they fit (or where they don't want to fit) in their world.
  • Establishing autonomy. Some people assume that autonomy refers to becoming completely independent from others. They equate it with teen "rebellion." Rather than severing relationships, however, establishing autonomy during the teen years really means becoming an independent and self-governing person within relationships. Autonomous teens have gained the ability to make and follow through with their own decisions, live by their own set of principles of right and wrong, and have become less emotionally dependent on parents. Autonomy is a necessary achievement if the teen is to become self-sufficient in society.
  • Establishing intimacy. Many people, including teens, equate intimacy with sex. In fact, intimacy and sex are not the same. Intimacy is usually first learned within the context of same-sex friendships, then utilized in romantic relationships. Intimacy refers to close relationships in which people are open, honest, caring and trusting. Friendships provide the first setting in which young people can practice their social skills with those who are their equals. It is with friends that teens learn how to begin, maintain, and terminate relationships, practice social skills, and become intimate.
  • Becoming comfortable with one's sexuality. The teen years mark the first time that young people are both physically mature enough to reproduce and cognitively advanced enough to think about it. Given this, the teen years are the prime time for the development of sexuality. How teens are educated about and exposed to sexuality will largely determine whether or not they develop a healthy sexual identity. More than half of most high school students report being sexually active. Many experts agree that the mixed messages teens receive about sexuality contribute to problems such as teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Achievement. Our society tends to foster and value attitudes of competition and success. Because of cognitive advances, the teen years are a time when young people can begin to see the relationship between their current abilities and plans and their future vocational aspirations. They need to figure out what their achievement preferences are-what they are currently good at and areas in which they are willing to strive for success.

How Do These Changes Affect Teens?
  • Teens begin to spend more time with their friends than their families. It is within friendship groups that teens can develop and practice social skills. Teens are quick to point out to each other which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. It is important to remember that even though teens are spending increased amounts of time with their friends, they still tend to conform to parental ideals when it comes to decisions about values, education, and long-term plans.
  • Teens may have more questions about sexuality. They may ask about adults' values and beliefs.
  • Teens may begin to keep a journal. Part of achieving identity is thinking about one's thoughts and feelings. Teens often begin journaling as a way of working through how they feel.
  • When they are in their rooms, teens may begin to lock their bedroom doors. Locking doors is a way to establish privacy. As long as teens continue to interact with the family, locked doors are usually nothing to worry about.
  • Teens may become involved in multiple hobbies or clubs. In an attempt to find out what they are good at, teens may try many activities. Teens' interests also change quickly. Today they are into yoga, and tomorrow they are into soccer.
  • Teens may become elusive about where they are going or with whom. When asked what they'll be doing for the evening, teens typically reply with "nothing" or "hanging out." When asked whom they'll be with, teens reply, "just some friends."
  • Teens may become more argumentative. Teens may question adults' values and judgments. When teens don't get their way, they may say, "You just don't understand."
  • Teens may not want to be seen with parents in public. They may make parents drop them off a block from their friends' houses or from school.
  • Teens may begin to interact with parents as people. Even though they may not want to be seen with parents in public, teens may begin to view parents more as people. They may ask more questions about how a parent was when he or she was a teen. They may attempt to interact with adults more as equals.

What Can You Do?
  • Encourage involvement in multiple groups or activities both within school and after-school. Realize that teens are trying to gain a sense of achievement-a sense of being uniquely good at something. Don't get frustrated if they frequently change their minds. At the same time, encourage them to stick with a project or activity long enough to establish some skills.
  • Praise teens for their efforts as well as their abilities. This will help teens to stick with activities instead of giving up if they are not immediately successful.
  • Help teens explore career goals and options. Take teens to work so they can see what adults do. Set up opportunities for them to "job shadow" others. Ask them questions about their future career goals. Remember that figuring out what they don't want to do is just as important as figuring out what they like!
  • Give teens an opportunity to establish their behavioral guidelines and consequences. Their advanced cognitive skills coupled with their need for autonomy makes this a perfect time for them to provide suggestions and to demonstrate responsibility for their own behavior.
  • Establish rituals to mark significant passages. Few rituals in our modern society mark the passage of teens to adulthood. Celebrate the teen's first driver's license and his or her ability to vote.
  • Be aware of who your teens' friends are and what they are doing.
  • Continue to provide a structured environment. Teens should be allowed to have more independence, but not enough to place them in jeopardy. Despite their complaints, teens rely on adults to provide them with the sense of safety and structure they need to deal effectively with all the psychosocial tasks of adolescents.
Gender Differences
Boys and girls face different challenges in our culture and may have different emotional needs during adolescence. Girls tend to have lower self-esteem than boys. Some girls may need help learning to express anger and to be more assertive. In contrast, boys may need to learn to be more cooperative and that it's okay to express emotions other than anger.

Cultural Differences
For many adolescents, this may be the first time that they consciously recognize their ethnic identity. Ethnic identity includes the shared values, traditions and practices of a cultural group. Feeling positive about one's ethnic identity is important to the self-esteem of an adolescent. This can be a difficult challenge for adolescents from minority cultures in the United States, given that they are often faced with negative stereotypes about their culture.

Behavioral Development
All of the developmental changes that adolescents experience prepare them to experiment with new behaviors. This experimentation results in risk-taking, which is a normal part of adolescent development. Engaging in risk-taking behavior helps adolescents to:

  • Shape their identities.
  • Try out their new decision-making skills.
  • Develop realistic assessments of themselves.
  • Gain peer acceptance and respect.

Unfortunately, some of the risks that adolescents pursue may pose a real threat to their health and well-being. These include motor vehicle accidents, pregnancy, alcohol and drug abuse, and cigarette smoking. Adolescents need guidance to channel the drive toward risk-taking behavior into less dangerous and more constructive pursuits.

First, adults who work with adolescents must be able to talk with them about the process of decision-making regarding sex, drugs, alcohol and other safety concerns. The goal is to help the adolescent weigh the dangers and benefits of a particular situation, consider his or her own strengths and weaknesses that may affect decision-making, and then make the best decisions possible.

Second, adults must be aware of positive pathways that teens might take to satisfy the need to take risks: becoming involved in a school play, learning to play a musical instrument, taking up a sport. A simple stretch beyond one's former capacities constitutes a risk and can satisfy many adolescents' need for risk taking.

Most adolescents will take risks. Eventually most will learn how to realistically assess risks and then will change their behavior accordingly. For others, risk-taking behavior may signal a problem that is a serious threat to their well being. Signs that an adolescent's risk behaviors are beyond normal experimentation include behaviors that:
  • Begin early, age 8 or 9.
  • Are on-going rather than occasional.
  • Occur in a social context with peers who engage in the same activity.
The areas of most concern for youth at risk of developing problem behaviors are:
  • Drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease.
  • School failure and dropping out.
  • Crime, delinquency and violence.
There are several factors that can help prevent the development of problem behaviors in adolescents, even under adverse circumstances such as poverty:
  • Stable, positive relationship with at least one caring adult.
  • Religious and spiritual anchors.
  • High, realistic academic expectations and adequate support.
  • Positive family environment.
  • Emotional intelligence and ability to cope with stress.

Unfortunately, these factors are not ones that an individual can create alone. A community must be able to offer the resources to build these elements into its structure. In order for this to happen, the needs of youth must be given priority.

Tips for Responding to Teenagers

  • Keep in mind that it's normal for your teens to want to be independent from you. Try to look at their behaviors through that lens.
  • Admit to yourself when you have overreacted. Go back to your teen. Admit that you overreacted. Apologize if that feels OK to you. Then sit down and begin a real conversation.
  • Forgive yourself if you've responded negatively to a child. Many parents overreact out of fear or concern for their child's welfare. Remember it's always possible to recover from these incidents. Usually the first step is going to a child and apologizing. When the relationship has been repaired, you can move on with your teen to a more positive place.
  • Build a support network around you. Parents who feel supported by friends, family members, clergy, or other trusted professionals, find it easier to deal with frustrating behavior from their teens.
  • Find out why your teen is behaving in a particular way. Teens say they want parents to "walk a mile in their shoes" and to try to understand their point of view. Remember to listen as much as, or more than, you talk.
  • Pick your battles. Give your teenagers privacy and allow them to make some of their own important decisions.
  • Help your teen gain the skills s/he needs to live independently. That is one of your most challenging, but important jobs, as a parent.
  • Think about how your responses to your teen's behavior will affect the closeness you share. Try to maintain a close connection with your teen. Remember that when teens feel connected to their parents, they are less likely to get involved in problem behaviors such as drug use or early sexual activity. (However, don't stop using a firm, fair and consistent set of household rules).

Developmental Tasks: Adolescents face the major task of creating stable identities and becoming complete and productive adults. They take on this task in small steps along the way as they adapt to the changes they experience.

Developmental Goal    
Reaching the Goal: Facts and Tips 
Achieve new level of closeness    Adolescents learn through experimentation to interact and trust with peers with others in more adult ways. 
Gain independence from parents    Change is smoother if adolescents and their parents agreeand develop new status within the family on some level of independence that increases over time.

Example: Setting curfew times that increase as the adolescent matures and shows responsible behavior.
Develop a sense of personal identity.    New cognitive abilities give adolescents the chance to reflect on who they are and what makes them unique. Adults can help adolescents in this quest by:
  • Engaging them with non-threatening questions, such as: Who do you admire? What do you like to do in your free time? What do you consider to be your strengths? What have you done in your life that you feel proud of?
  • Casually showing rational decision-making strategies, such as discussing how someone you know defined a problem, generated options, anticipated outcomes, and made a decision.
  • Discussing ethical and moral problems that are in the news.
Move toward autonomy in the larger world.    Adults can help them to gain insightful experience in the world by encouraging them to:
  • Take on more responsibility in schoolwork and school-related activities.
  • Get involved in community activities.
  • Hold part-time or summer jobs.
  • Develop future goals.
  • Examine career/educational options.

Four Major Questions Facing Adolescents
The growth of one's intellect from concrete to abstract thinking makes adolescence an intense time of self-discovery. In their quest to define themselves and their relationship to the world, adolescents begin to ask themselves four basic abstract questions:

  1. Who am I? (pertaining to his or her sexuality and social roles)
  2. Am I normal? (Do I fit in with a certain crowd?)
  3. Am I competent? (Am I good at something that is valued by peers and parents?)
  4. Am I lovable and loving? (can someone besides Mom and Dad love me?)

Adults who work with adolescents need to recognize that these questions are quite central to the concerns of adolescents and should give them a chance to explore their own beliefs and find their own answers to these questions.

Four Major Questions Facing Adolescents - Guidelines for Adults

Who am I?
Give them the freedom to explore their world. Only then can adolescents begin to answer this question.

Am I normal?
Give them room to be like their peers. Fitting in with peers helps adolescents feel "normal."
Monitor youth activities by using the four "W" questions:

  1. Where are you going?
  2. With whom are you going?
  3. What are you doing?
  4. When will you be home?
Am I competent?
  • Assist adolescents with their problems and challenges but do not solve them.
  • Ask questions instead of telling, such "What are some things you could do?"
  • Guide but do not direct.
Am I lovable and loving?
Adolescents develop best when they have supportive families and community life that include:
  • Warmth and mutual respect.
  • Serious and lasting interest of parents and other adults.
  • Adult attention to the changes they are experiencing.
  • Clear standards regarding discipline and close supervision.
  • Communication of high expectations for achievement and ethical behavior.
  • Democratic ways of dealing with conflict.

Funding for this program provided by the Department of Health and Human Services